Cities ranked by street-network sprawl

Barrington-Leigh and Millard-Ball, PNAS 2020

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You can also download the raw data. Please cite our paper for these data.

Sprawl (SNDi) Nodal degree N(nodes)
City Country <1990 90-99 '00-13 Stock <1990 90-99 '00-13 Stock <1990 90-99 '00-13 Stock
Suva Fiji 3.5 8.4 10.4 8.2 2.9 2.3 2.1 2.4 148 1418 150 1712
Caracas Venezuela 4.9 10.4 10.1 5.3 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.8 11050 772 536 12360
Bangkok Thailand 6.8 7.6 8.1 7.3 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 74030 29630 45660 149300
Guatemala City Guatemala 3.8 5.6 7.5 4.5 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.9 22470 7338 4701 34500
Cebu City Philippines 6.1 6.9 7.3 6.6 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 5663 2294 4493 12450
Gorgan Iran 3.6 5.8 6.7 3.9 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.7 3342 468 240 4050
Los Angeles United States 3.6 6.2 6.3 3.9 2.9 2.6 2.6 2.9 250900 26000 9729 286500
Raleigh United States 4.8 5.4 6.3 5.6 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.6 11490 20790 18820 51100
Palembang Indonesia 4.7 5.6 6.3 5.2 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 15480 19170 3892 38540
New York United States 2.9 5.2 6.3 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.9 316700 41750 3484 361800
San Salvador El Salvador 4.4 7.1 6.1 5.0 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.7 10720 1727 4738 17190
Belgrade Serbia 2.9 6.6 6.0 4.2 3.0 2.3 2.4 2.7 9064 2239 4043 15350
Tijuana Mexico 4.3 3.6 6.0 4.4 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.9 15030 9205 8453 32660
Florianopolis Brazil 2.9 5.9 5.9 4.1 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.8 7180 2507 3211 12900
Pune India 3.4 5.0 5.9 4.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.7 6296 14750 10070 31110
Sao Paulo Brazil 2.1 4.9 5.8 2.5 3.1 2.8 2.6 3.0 152700 23130 5452 181200
Medan Indonesia 4.0 5.2 5.8 4.9 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.6 20000 28810 15540 64350
Gainesville United States 3.0 6.4 5.6 3.8 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.0 3858 796 1189 5843
Johannesburg South Africa 2.9 4.1 5.5 3.8 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 63020 15740 30170 108900
Dhaka Bangladesh 3.3 4.9 5.5 4.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.8 14300 5459 6604 26360
Kolkata India 3.2 4.6 5.4 3.9 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.8 19900 10110 6382 36360
Pematangsiantar Indonesia 3.2 4.6 5.4 3.7 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.9 1480 296 277 2053
Ulaanbaatar Mongolia 4.1 4.8 5.3 4.5 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 5923 1363 3107 10390
Kampala Uganda 4.9 5.6 5.3 5.1 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.6 8357 3792 3239 15380
Houston United States 2.9 5.1 5.3 3.9 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.9 88310 31430 45040 164700
Philadelphia United States 2.3 4.9 5.2 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.7 3.0 121700 25000 15350 162000
Victoria Canada 2.9 4.6 5.2 3.3 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 6591 1811 453 8837
Ho Chi Minh City Viet Nam 1.8 4.2 5.2 4.6 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.7 6087 12620 45260 63950
Manila Philippines 3.9 5.1 5.1 4.4 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 62320 26280 29480 118000
Sheffield United Kingdom 3.4 5.1 5.1 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.7 28920 2534 806 32260
Rawang Malaysia 3.5 4.7 5.0 4.7 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 544 818 3782 5143
Pokhara Nepal 3.2 4.5 5.0 3.6 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.7 1835 281 473 2589
Baku Azerbaijan 4.1 5.2 5.0 4.6 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.7 11000 7393 5087 23480
Lagos Nigeria 4.2 4.6 5.0 4.5 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 24080 22070 18610 64750
Vijayawada India 2.8 4.1 4.9 3.2 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.9 6915 1384 728 9020
Sialkot Pakistan 2.7 4.9 4.9 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.8 1610 2338 321 4269
Rajshahi Bangladesh 1.4 3.7 4.9 3.9 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.7 133 1592 710 2435
Cirebon Indonesia 2.7 4.2 4.9 4.5 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 1052 2313 7938 11300
Portland United States 3.0 4.9 4.8 3.4 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.9 50770 10330 6086 67180
Cleveland United States 2.8 5.4 4.8 3.8 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.9 24070 9499 13570 47140
Tyumen Russia 1.7 4.5 4.8 3.0 3.3 2.8 2.8 3.1 2305 915 1194 4414
Mexico City Mexico 1.8 4.0 4.8 2.7 3.2 2.8 2.7 3.0 116100 31920 40260 188300
Algiers Algeria 3.9 3.8 4.7 4.1 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 11870 10180 8928 30960
Minneapolis United States 2.8 4.6 4.7 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.7 3.0 62930 13580 11140 87630
Kaunas Lithuania 2.2 5.3 4.7 2.7 3.2 2.7 2.8 3.1 3189 170 681 4009
Coimbatore India 3.5 4.2 4.7 3.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 7197 5321 3402 15920
Arusha Tanzania 1.4 4.5 4.7 3.6 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.8 268 398 247 913
Manchester United Kingdom 4.0 5.2 4.6 4.0 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.7 71310 2487 224 74010
Springfield United States 3.0 4.7 4.6 3.7 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.9 9586 7111 2217 18910
Mumbai India 3.3 4.3 4.6 3.7 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 22760 2497 8396 33640
Astrakhan Russia 2.0 3.5 4.6 2.5 3.1 2.8 2.6 3.0 3739 2378 145 6243
Toledo United States 2.1 4.2 4.6 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.8 3.0 9881 3449 2782 16110
Kozhikode India 1.7 3.8 4.5 3.5 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.7 337 527 971 1834
Parepare Indonesia 2.4 3.8 4.4 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 748 297 517 1554
Guadalajara Mexico 1.7 3.8 4.4 2.5 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.1 45840 8804 20720 75350
Chicago United States 2.6 4.6 4.4 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.8 3.0 168400 29800 13250 211400
Jequie Brazil 1.2 1.9 4.4 1.5 3.2 3.1 2.9 3.2 2350 841 241 3425
Santiago Chile 1.5 2.1 4.4 1.9 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.1 65980 14240 12680 92900
Cabimas Venezuela 2.4 2.8 4.3 2.6 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.9 6392 1322 700 8410
Tashkent Uzbekistan 2.7 4.3 4.3 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.9 17210 8640 4093 29940
Bacolod Philippines 2.6 5.1 4.3 4.2 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.0 1116 1735 871 3718
Ipoh Malaysia 3.6 4.4 4.3 3.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 11280 3317 1477 16070
Ahvaz Iran 1.8 3.7 4.3 2.4 3.2 2.8 2.8 3.1 9175 2293 1828 13260
Killeen United States 2.7 3.5 4.3 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 4122 705 3163 7990
Singrauli India 4.7 4.0 4.3 4.2 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 215 776 420 1411
Accra Ghana 3.3 3.5 4.2 3.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 7924 17950 30780 56660
Sydney Australia 3.0 5.2 4.2 3.3 2.9 2.7 2.9 2.9 60730 7784 7819 76290
Bogota Colombia 1.2 2.0 4.2 1.3 3.2 3.1 2.8 3.2 44410 4658 1116 50190
Quito Ecuador 1.9 4.0 4.1 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.9 10240 5981 16250 32470
Moscow Russia 1.3 3.3 4.1 2.2 3.4 3.0 2.9 3.2 30260 10580 12860 53690
Ibadan Nigeria 4.1 3.7 4.1 4.0 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 19590 11700 15980 47270
Belo Horizonte Brazil 1.5 3.7 4.1 1.8 3.2 2.9 2.9 3.2 42180 4678 2774 49630
London United Kingdom 3.3 4.3 4.1 3.4 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 152100 24990 2778 179800
Saidpur Bangladesh 2.7 4.0 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.8 271 19 134 424
Istanbul Turkey 1.0 1.6 4.0 1.5 3.2 3.2 2.8 3.2 75590 47720 21180 144500
Warsaw Poland 1.5 2.5 4.0 2.2 3.3 3.0 2.7 3.1 16690 6931 5331 28940
Curitiba Brazil 1.8 3.0 4.0 2.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 22960 15240 6768 44970
Sana Yemen 1.1 2.5 4.0 1.5 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 9189 1111 1072 11370
Tehran Iran 2.4 3.5 3.9 2.6 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 63280 10710 7733 81720
Hyderabad India 2.6 3.1 3.8 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 53250 40680 42530 136500
Halle Germany 1.1 2.9 3.8 1.5 3.3 3.0 2.8 3.2 2940 959 178 4077
Modesto United States 3.1 3.6 3.7 3.4 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 7256 3193 2624 13070
Rovno Ukraine 2.3 3.1 3.7 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.8 2.9 932 252 1285 2469
Milan Italy 1.9 3.6 3.7 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.9 57860 47810 31340 137000
Lausanne Switzerland 1.3 2.7 3.7 1.8 3.4 3.1 2.8 3.2 2629 1140 288 4056
Haikou China 2.8 2.6 3.7 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.0 1180 455 1004 2638
Hong Kong China 0.7 1.7 3.7 0.9 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.4 5103 820 221 6128
Auckland New Zealand 3.2 4.0 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.9 16630 1779 1722 20120
Osaka Japan 1.2 2.8 3.7 1.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.2 163200 11930 2732 177900
Kabul Afghanistan 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 12210 1942 6990 21140
Qom Iran 1.9 2.3 3.6 2.2 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.0 7194 1726 2228 11150
Malatya Turkey 1.1 2.6 3.6 1.6 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.1 3751 731 829 5301
Jaipur India 2.6 3.1 3.6 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 8553 19120 12760 40440
Nakuru Kenya 1.8 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.1 2.9 2.8 3.0 818 180 650 1648
Shymkent Kazakhstan 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.5 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 4273 832 4356 9459
Kigali Rwanda 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 983 1893 1704 4580
Culiacan Mexico 0.7 2.0 3.5 1.5 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.3 8203 3594 3451 15250
Beira Mozambique 2.5 4.5 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.9 1284 108 2009 3401
Tangshan China 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.9 1654 871 3110 5635
Tel Aviv Israel 1.1 2.5 3.4 2.0 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1 9565 14060 4221 27840
Hindupur India 3.4 2.7 3.0 3.0 32 42 250 324
Myeik Myanmar 1.9 3.3 3.3 2.4 3.1 2.8 2.8 3.0 723 143 501 1364
Palermo Italy 2.2 6.4 3.3 2.6 3.0 2.5 2.8 2.9 7142 221 3528 10890
Montreal Canada 1.8 3.5 3.3 1.9 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.2 45390 2361 4717 52460
Port Elizabeth South Africa 2.3 4.2 3.3 2.7 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.0 9068 987 6311 16360
Paris France 1.8 3.0 3.3 2.0 3.1 2.9 2.8 3.1 120400 12710 10510 143400
Alexandria Egypt 0.7 2.3 3.3 1.1 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.2 8166 1172 1755 11070
Antwerp Belgium 1.5 2.8 3.2 1.9 3.2 2.9 2.8 3.1 15740 6212 1122 23050
Ahmedabad India 2.5 3.5 3.2 2.7 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.9 8928 1520 1503 11950
Saint Petersburg Russia 0.5 3.4 3.2 1.9 3.6 2.9 3.0 3.3 9635 3610 6806 20050
Palmas Brazil 3.1 3.5 3.2 3.3 3.1 2.9 3.1 3.0 1246 3002 1080 5328
Lahore Pakistan 2.3 2.8 3.2 2.5 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 25460 6032 8742 40230
Oyo Nigeria 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.3 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 1451 778 2288 4517
Kinshasa DR Congo 2.1 3.2 3.2 2.7 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.1 18540 13100 14800 46440
Shanghai China 1.6 2.9 3.1 2.1 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.2 21910 10030 4331 36260
Zunyi China 3.6 3.4 3.1 3.3 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.0 451 212 399 1062
Seoul South Korea 0.9 2.3 3.1 1.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.2 87480 23150 14590 125200
Guixi China 1.3 3.1 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.9 119 98 152 369
Vienna Austria 0.5 2.3 3.0 1.0 3.4 3.0 2.9 3.3 15700 5894 1520 23110
Tebessa Algeria 2.0 2.6 3.0 2.2 3.1 3.1 2.9 3.1 2534 852 368 3754
Shenzhen China 2.5 2.6 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 6775 10210 5627 22600
Reynosa Mexico 1.9 2.9 3.0 2.2 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.2 7494 724 3016 11230
Oldenburg Germany 2.0 3.0 3.0 2.2 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.1 2479 669 398 3546
Guangzhou China 1.8 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 5568 34110 33470 73130
Baghdad Iraq 2.1 3.3 2.9 2.2 3.1 2.8 2.9 3.1 45310 798 1103 47210
Gomel Belarus 1.6 2.4 2.9 2.0 3.3 3.0 2.9 3.1 1438 1079 188 2703
Riyadh Saudi Arabia 1.7 2.7 2.9 2.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 50420 13700 26330 90440
Qingdao China 1.6 1.0 2.8 2.4 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.0 2669 2339 13880 18880
Singapore Singapore 1.9 1.5 2.8 1.9 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.3 13630 2347 618 16580
Cochabamba Bolivia 0.6 2.2 2.8 1.6 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.2 9470 6155 5781 21410
Cairo Egypt 1.4 2.2 2.7 2.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 23400 5148 33180 61650
Cordoba Argentina 0.6 2.3 2.7 1.0 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.3 22160 2406 4487 29050
Xingping China 2.4 2.7 2.5 3.0 2.9 2.9 110 34 263 407
Beijing China 2.0 2.7 2.7 2.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 19390 4648 14920 38960
Bukhara Uzbekistan 0.9 2.9 2.7 2.5 3.3 2.9 2.9 2.9 383 905 1335 2622
Belgaum India 1.2 2.1 2.7 2.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 555 738 1521 2814
Taipei China 0.4 1.9 2.6 1.2 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.2 15480 9285 7739 32510
Yulin China 2.7 2.1 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 2.9 3.0 209 316 299 824
Bicheng China 0.2 0.4 2.5 1.7 3.3 3.3 3.1 3.1 147 134 626 907
Zwolle Netherlands 2.0 1.6 2.5 1.9 3.1 3.3 3.0 3.1 3058 474 200 3731
Tianjin China 1.7 2.9 2.5 2.3 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.1 5007 1202 14040 20240
Yucheng China 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 312 289 252 853
Hangzhou China 1.1 1.9 2.5 2.0 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 2710 7870 11280 21860
Kayseri Turkey 1.2 1.4 2.5 1.7 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.1 1652 6635 4135 12420
Chengdu China 2.0 2.9 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 4475 6667 10200 21340
Yamaguchi Japan 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.9 3.1 3.0 2.9 10840 849 238 11920
Ndola Zambia 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.0 2730 982 452 4162
Wuhan China 2.0 2.4 2.3 2.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 5506 1976 7900 15370
Leshan China 0.6 1.5 2.3 1.4 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1 200 193 198 589
Yiyang China 1.1 1.9 2.3 1.8 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.1 268 197 262 727
Karachi Pakistan 1.8 1.4 2.3 1.8 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 19750 9006 7515 36270
Changzhou China 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 812 1965 2931 5708
Le Mans France 1.6 2.7 2.3 1.7 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.2 4162 128 487 4775
Okayama Japan 1.6 2.4 2.3 1.6 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 50920 1592 3359 55790
Zhengzhou China 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.4 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 2915 1058 5414 9387
Budapest Hungary 0.5 1.3 2.2 1.2 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.2 19850 640 13900 34350
Changzhi China 0.8 3.3 2.2 1.8 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.2 371 180 310 861
Zhuji China 1.3 2.1 2.1 1.8 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.1 898 804 341 2043
Addis Ababa Ethiopia 2.6 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.0 16280 10550 16320 43160
Ribeirao Preto Brazil 1.1 3.0 2.1 1.4 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.3 9301 1569 1505 12370
Berlin Germany 0.3 1.0 2.1 0.9 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.3 17680 11210 10880 39770
Thessaloniki Greece 0.1 1.9 2.1 0.5 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.3 10600 1236 2490 14320
Fukuoka Japan 1.1 1.8 2.0 1.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.2 46970 6717 2684 56330
Gombe Nigeria 1.6 3.7 2.0 2.0 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.1 1836 556 4529 6921
Valledupar Colombia -0.2 0.6 2.0 0.2 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.5 2978 1144 648 4770
Gwangju South Korea 0.4 1.3 1.9 0.9 3.4 3.2 3.2 3.3 5325 2747 2278 10350
Anqing China 0.5 1.9 1.0 3.3 3.1 3.2 197 96 264 557
Busan South Korea 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.4 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2 15910 4092 4239 24230
Gaoyou China 1.8 1.8 3.1 3.1 83 32 149 264
Kanpur India 2.1 3.2 1.8 2.1 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.0 4631 435 418 5483
Tokyo Japan 1.1 1.6 1.8 1.1 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 662700 38240 96520 797300
Marrakesh Morocco 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 6328 2215 3610 12150
Leon Nicaragua 1.0 3.2 1.7 1.5 3.3 2.9 3.1 3.2 1143 378 392 1913
Madrid Spain 0.7 1.5 1.7 1.1 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.3 27780 12120 15240 55120
Buenos Aires Argentina -0.1 0.9 1.6 0.3 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.5 118000 16760 25870 160600
Suining China 1.6 1.0 3.2 3.3 51 61 122 232
Bamako Mali 0.6 1.0 1.6 1.1 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2 13360 7500 15580 36430
Jinju South Korea 0.8 2.4 1.6 1.2 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2 2491 122 2518 5131
Luanda Angola 2.0 2.2 1.5 1.8 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 12480 10490 27570 50540
Cheonan South Korea 0.2 0.7 1.3 0.8 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.3 1564 1165 2614 5343
Vinh Long Viet Nam 1.3 1.4 3.1 3.2 72 99 161 332
Lubumbashi DR Congo 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.5 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 6691 2344 7652 16690
Jinan China 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.7 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.2 4251 624 991 5865
Yanggu China 0.7 0.4 3.3 3.4 79 66 131 276
Khartoum Sudan 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 55930 14450 37680 108100
Xucheng China 0.5 0.8 3.6 3.5 12 51 264 327